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Technical Papers - X-ray Inspection

X-ray Technology

Real Time X-ray Analysis of Void Formation and Dynamics in QFN Devices During Reflow
High powered devices require electrical circuits with good thermal conductance and minimal voiding, to maintain long life time and optimum performance throughout. One example is the Quad Flat No-leads (QFN) package.  This paper examining the issue was presented at SMTAI 2019.

2D X-ray Inspection with Materials and Thickness Identification
As presented at SMTAI 2016, Dr Evstatin Krastev (PhD) explains how to perform 2D inspections for materials and thickness identification using a Nordson DAGE X-ray system.

Advances in X-ray Tube Technology

Comparing Digital and Analogue X-ray Inspection of BGA, Flip Chip and CSP

X-ray Dose Considerations
In this Application Note, Dr Nick Dajda summarizes X-ray radiation dose, and the techniques that can be employed to reduce radiation exposure to samples in your Quadra™ X-ray Inspection System.  



X-ray / Bondtester Reliability Study of BGA Devices - Impact of Interfacial Voiding

Implications of Using Lead Free Solders on X-ray Inspection of Flip Chips and BGAs

Investigating Voids - Circuit Assembly Article

Does PCB Pad Finish Affect Voiding Levels in Lead Free Assemblies 

Non Destructive Techniques for Identifying Defects in BGA Joints: TDR, 2DX and Cross Section / SEM Comparison

Soldering Process Improvement of Critical SMT Connectors

Correlating the Presence of Popcorned BGA Devices Post Reflow with solder-ball diameter measurements from X-ray Inspection  

Common Process Defect Identification of QFN Packages  

3D Board Level X-Ray Inspection Via Limited Angle Computer Tomography  

Recent Advances in the X-ray Inspection Technology with Emphasis on Large Board Computer Tomography and Automation  

Modern 2D X-ray Tackles BGA Defects  

Modern 2D / 3D X-ray Inspection - Emphasis on BGA, QFN, 3D Packages and Counterfeit Components

Heated Stage App Note

Heated Stage Reflow Simulator
Reflow individual components to see solder joint formation in real-time in regions only accessible to X-ray. The Heated Stage accessory for Quadra™ allows you to heat samples through pre-defined temperature profiles and see the results live using X-ray. Cover gases can also be applied to simulate inert reflow. Learn more with this paper by Chris Rand.



X-ray Inspection for Nano Technology



The Challenges of Package on Package (PoP) Devices During Assembly and Inspection

Considerations for Minimizing Radiation Doses to Components during X-ray Inspection

Computerized Tomography Meets the Challenges of IC Package Inspection 



Quality and Reliability Investigation on Printed Circuit Board Micro-Vias by X-ray Inspection